Emmanuelle Avril is Professor of Contemporary British Politics and Society at the Sorbonne Nouvelle University. Her main line of research is intra-party democracy, organisational change and mobilisation within the Labour Party. Her latest publications include Labour United and Divided from the 1830s to the Present (Manchester University Press, 2018, co-ed.) and Democracy, Participation and Contestation. Civil Society, Governance and the Future of Liberal Democracy (Routledge, 2016, co-ed.).