Frédéric Louault is a Lecturer at the Institutes of Political Studies (IEP) in Paris and Grenoble. A doctoral student in Paris at the Centre for International Studies and Research (CERI, Sciences Po), he is a member of the Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean and convenes the Group for Interdisciplinary Research on Brazil. His research focuses on elections and political careers in Brazil. He has recently edited the electronic book Brésil, Municipales 2008: Des élections de positionnement? (Brazil’s Municipal Elections of 2008: Positioning Elections?) (2009), available online.